What Is Endocrine System? Hormone Producing Glands And their function

What Is Endocrine System? Hormone Producing Glands And their function

What Is Endocrine System?

The endocrine system is a study of hormones a chemical messenger and the endocrine glands.

The endocrine system is a set of glands that secrets hormones that body need to do various function in the body.

Hormones are produced by the gland and sent in the bloodstream to the various tissues in the body. And they send signals to tissues that what they are supposed to do.

Our body has various receptors that detect the specific hormone and work accordingly.

When our gland stop or not produce enough hormones that it should produce the various disease starts like thyroid is the malfunctioning of Thyroid Gland and Diabetes is a malfunctioning of the Pancreas.

This Controls various functions of the body like:

  • Metabolism
  • Respiration
  • Sexual Development / Growth
  • Movement
  • Growth
  • Reproduction

Types of Glands


The endocrine gland doesn’t have any ducts.

These Glands produce the all hormones needed by the body.

Some specific signals are broadcasted throughout the entire body via the bloodstream. And these signals are hormones produced by endocrine cells.

Examples of endocrine glands are thyroid glands, parathyroid glands, pituitary glands, adrenal glands.


The exocrine glands have ducts.

They are responsible for producing sweat, enzymes, mucus, and sebum.

These glands release all enzymes throughout the internal organs or external surface throughout the duct.

Example of exocrine glands are salivary glands, pancreas, liver, Brunner’s glands, esophageal glands

Hormones Secreting Gland in Human Body

  • Pineal gland
  • Hypothalamus
  • Pituitary gland
  • Thyroid gland
  • Parathyroid glands (dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland)
  • Thymus
  • Adrenal glands
  • Pancreas (has exocrine in parts) (endocrine part secretes insulin)
  • Gonads: Testes/Ovaries (also exocrine)

1.Pineal Gland. The Pineal Gland is found in the middle of your brain. It’s important for the sleep cycle. This gland produces melatonin which affects sleep.

2. Hypothalamus. The Hypothalamus produces multiple hormones that control the pituitary gland the master gland. It is responsible for hunger, temperature, sleep-wake cycle, moods, and also control thirst, and sex drive.

3.Pituitary Gland. This Pituitary gland is located below the hypothalamus. It is considered a master control gland. It produces the hormones that affect growth and reproduction.

4.Thyroid Gland. The thyroid gland is located at your neck. It is responsible for your metabolism and heart rate.

5.Parathyroid Gland. The parathyroid gland is present in your neck behind the thyroid gland, the parathyroid gland is responsible for calcium levels in blood and bones.

6.Thymus Gland. The thymus gland is located in the upper torso, the thymus is active till puberty and produces hormones important for the development of white blood cells also known as T cells.

7.Adrenal Gland. The adrenal gland is located above each kidney. This gland produces hormones that control blood pressure, heart rate, and stress response a cortisol hormone.

8.Pancreas.The pancreas is located behind your stomach. And Its endocrine function (insulin)involves control blood sugar levels.

9.Gonads. The gonads, the primary reproductive organs, are the testes in the male and the ovaries in the female. These organs are responsible for producing sperm and ova, but they also secrete hormones and are considered to be endocrine glands.

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